Daily Archives: May 18, 2015


Annoying Precision

Previously we proved a theorem due to Gabriel characterizing categories of modules as cocomplete abelian categories with a compactprojectivegenerator, where “generator” meant “every object is a colimit of finite direct sums of copies of the object.”

But we also used “generator” to mean “every object is a colimit of copies of the object,” and noted that these conditions are not equivalent: as this MO question discusses, the abelian group $latex mathbb{Z}$ satisfies the first condition but not the second. More generally, as Mike Shulman explains here, there are in fact many inequivalent definitions of “generator” in category theory.

The goal of this post is to sort through a few of these definitions, which turn out to be totally ordered in strength, and find additional hypotheses under which they agree. As an application we’ll restate Gabriel’s theorem using weaker definitions of “generator” and give a more…

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PROPs for Linear Systems


Eric Drexler likes to say: engineering is dual to science, because science tries to understand what the world does, while engineering is about getting the world to do what you want. I think we need a slightly less ‘coercive’, more ‘cooperative’ approach to the world in order to develop ‘ecotechnology’, but it’s still a useful distinction.

For example, classical mechanics is the study of what things do when they follow Newton’s laws. Control theory is the study of what you can get them to do.

Say you an upside-down pendulum on a cart. Classical mechanics says what it will do. But control theory says: if you watch the pendulum and use what you see to move the cart back and forth correctly, you can make sure the pendulum doesn’t fall over!

Control theorists do their work with the help of ‘signal-flow diagrams’. For example, here is the signal-flow diagram for…

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